Skin color is formed by melanin produced by melanocytes. All skin types are susceptible to pigmentation disorders. Such changes are more pronounced in dark-skinned people.
Facial spots are an important problem that seriously affects individuals socially and psychologically. It also reduces individuals' social functions and self-esteem. These individuals are more prone to tension, depression and use of antidepressants. With the effect of stress and depression, there is an increase in cortisol levels and an increase in melanin synthesis. This triggers the formation of stains.
The most common causes of facial spots are old age, excessive sun exposure, wrong cosmetic applications, use of wrong cosmetic products, menopause, pregnancy and drugs such as birth control pills.
The stain is divided into two as superficial (epidermal) or deep (dermal) according to its depth. The use of wood light has an important place in determining this distinction. If the lesion is more prominent and black with Wood's lamp, the stain is superficial and the chance of clinical improvement is higher. In addition, 3D (three-dimensional) imaging systems are also helpful.
- Superficial (Epidermal) Spots
- Freckling (efelid, solar lentigo)
- Age spots (actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis)
- Cafe ola stains
- Deep (Dermal) Spots
- Melasma (sun spot, pregnancy spot)
- Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (spots formed after skin applications)
- Birthmarks (nevus of ota)
- Becker's nevus
Methods used in spot treatment:
- Chemical peeling
- carbon peeling
- Mesotherapy – PRP applications
- Depigmentation masks
After the stain analysis of the patient, the most appropriate treatment option is decided. Combined treatments give more effective results.
Various drug combinations (tretinoin, hydroquinone, dexamethasone) have been used for many years in the treatment of stains. Response to treatment starts late, so long-term use (3-12 months) is required.
It is a method that creates peeling on the skin applied with chemical solutions obtained from organic fruit acids. It is an effective method for medium-depth stains, especially in superficial stains.
After skin cleansing, the appropriate chemical agent is applied superficially to the skin, and it is removed from the skin with a neutralizing solution in 2-10 minutes.
Frequently, jessner's, glycolic acid, or salicylic acid solutions are used.
It is done in the form of 4 applications every two weeks. The peeling power is increased as tolerated.
Q-switch Nd-YAG laser is an effective method that can be applied to any skin type. A few minutes after the carbon is applied, the appropriate dose of carbon blasting and spot-specific laser application is applied to the patient.
A laser with a wavelength of 1064 nm is used for deep spots, while a laser with a wavelength of 532 nm is used for superficial spots.
It is a painless application that does not affect social and work life. The session takes an average of 30 minutes. 6-10 sessions are repeated in the form of an application once a week.
In addition to spot treatment, it is also very successful in skin tone balancing, active acne, acne scars, pore tightening and skin renewal treatments.
It is a method of applying medicine to the skin by micro-injection. In mesotherapy, correction of pigment differentiation, tone balancing and antioxidant effects are used.
Tranexamic acid, vitamin C, vitamin K, N-acetyl glucosamine are some of the active ingredients.
Mesotherapy is used in the treatment of facial rejuvenation, hair loss, cellulite and local fat deposition as well as spot treatment.
The mask suitable for the depth of the stain is selected. After facial cleansing, the mask is applied to the entire face. After 12 hours, it is required to wash with plenty of water.
Severe redness and sensitivity may develop on the face after the mask, but it will return to normal within a few days. During this period, soothing creams and moisturizers are used.
A single application is often sufficient. After the application, sunscreen and stain follow-up creams must be used.
Spot treatment is a long treatment that requires patience. Appropriate treatment should be selected according to the depth of the stain.
Patients should use sunscreen regularly in all seasons.
Non-expert physician practices should be avoided in the treatment of stains.